Resources for a Christian worldview


Mathematics resources


Gene B. Chase and Calvin Jongsma 1983.  Bibliography of Christianity and mathematics 1910-1983 (Dordt, Iowa: Dort College, 1983)

An extensive annotated bibliography of papers and books dealing with Christian approaches and attitudes to maths.


Journal of the ACMS

Full length Books

Robert L. Brabenec 1977-  A Christian Perspective on the Foundations of Mathematics (Wheaton College, 1977)

Brabenec has edited a number of 'Mathematics from a Christian Perspective' Conference Proceedings, of which this is the first. They contain a wealth of useful information of integrating math and a Christian worldview, however, they are concerned primarily with higher education. Many of the articles are now available on-line here.

John Byl 2004. The Divine Challenge: on Matter, Mind, Math and Meaning (Edinburgh: Banner of Truth Trust, 2004) Review here by Russell Howell.

Charis Mathematics Project 1996/1997. Charis Mathematics (Units 1-9 & Units 10-19A1 -A6) (John Shortt, director) (editors John Shortt and John Westwell) (Nottingham: The Stapleford Centre, 1996 and 1997)

Photocopiable materials for bringing out the 'spiritual and moral' aspects of mathematics at the secondary school level; written by Christian teachers of mathematics.

Roy A. Clouser 2005. The Myth of Religious Neutrality: A Essay on the Hidden Role of Religious Belief in Theories (Notre Dame: University of Notre Dame, 1991; 2nd edn 2005)

Chapter 7 looks at some theories in mathematics (number-world theory; J. S. Mill; Bertrand Russell;and John Dewey) and shows how they all depend on divinising certain aspects of creation.

Andrew M. Hartely 2008.  Christian and Humanist Foundations for Statistical Inference (Resource Publications, Wipf and Stock, 2008)

Looks at four of the dominant paradigms in statistics and compares them with a Christian worldview

Russell W. Howell (ed.) 2011. Mathematics Through the Eyes of Faith (Through the Eyes of Faith Series). Harper Collins.

Russell W. Howell and James Bradley (ed.) 2001. Mathematics in a Postmodern Age: A Christian Perspective (Eerdmans, Grand Rapids, 2001)

Examines the nature of mathematics, the influence of maths and faith perspectives in mathematics from a Christian perspective.

Calvin Jongsma and Trudy Baker  The Shape and Number of Things: An Integrated Math Curriculum for the Elementary School (Toronto: Curriculum Development Center)

A complete primary school package.

T. Koetsier and L. Bergmans (eds) 2004. Mathematics and the Divine A Historical Study (Elsevier Science, 2004)

James Nikel 2000. Mathematics: Is God Silent? (Vallecito, CA: Ross House Books, 1990; 2nd edn 2000)

Written to show that God is not! Contains many useful examples.

Danie F.M. Strauss  2001. Paradigms in Mathematics, Physics and Biology their Philosophical Roots. Bloemfontein: Tekskor BK.

Harro Van Brummelen (co-ordinaries) 1971. Mathematics in the Christian School.

Report resulting from a seminar held in Toronto in July, 1971, under the auspices of the O.A.C.S. and the A.A.C.S. Available online: http://www.reformationalpublishingproject.com/pdf_books/Scanned_Books_PDF/MathematicsintheChristianSchool.pdf

Chapters in books

Harro Van Brummelen 1988.  Walking with God in the Classroom: Christian Approaches to Learning and Teaching (Ontario: Welch, 1988)

Though on Christian education in general, this book contains many insights into mathematics.

Gene B. Chase 1996.  'Has Christian theology furthered mathematics' In Facets of Faith and Science vol 2: The Role of Beliefs in Mathematics and the Natural Sciences: An Augustinian Perspective. Jitse M. van der Meer (ed.) University Press of America/ Pascal Centre for Advanced Studies: Lanham/ Ancaster, 1996.

Harold Heie and David L. Wolfe (editors) 1987.  The Reality of Christian Learning: Strategies for Faith-Discipline Integration (Grand Rapids: Christian University Press/ Eerdmans, 1987)

Harold Heie and Gene Chase contribute two chapters on ways of integrating the Christian faith and mathematics.

Vern Poythress 1976. "A biblical view of mathematics" in Foundations of Christian Scholarship: Essays in the Van Til Perspective (Vallecito, CA: Ross House, 1976)

Develops a [Cornelius] Van Tilian approach to maths

Geraldine J. Steensma and Harro W. Van Brummelen 1977.  Shaping School Curriculum: A Biblical View (Terre Haute, Ind: Signal, 1977)

Contains a useful chapter on math education by Van Brummelen and some examples (Statistics and Deductive Geometry) of how this translates into classroom practice.

Danie F. M. Strauss 1996.'A historical analysis of the role of beliefs in the three foundational crises in mathematics'. In Facets of Faith and Science vol 2: The Role of Beliefs in Mathematics and the Natural Sciences: An Augustinian Perspective. Jitse M. van der Meer (ed.) University Press of America/ Pascal Centre for Advanced Studies: Lanham/ Ancaster, 1996.

Danie F. M. Strauss 1996.  'Primitive meaning in mathematics: the interaction among commitment, theoretical worldview and axiomatic set theory'. In Facets of Faith and Science vol 2: The Role of Beliefs in Mathematics and the Natural Sciences: An Augustinian Perspective. Jitse M. van der Meer (ed.) (Lanham/ Ancaster: University Press of America/ Pascal Centre for Advanced Studies:, 1996).

Anthony Tol 1979. 'Counting, number concepts and numerosity' in Hearing and Doing John Kraay and Anthony Tol (ed.) (Toronto: Wedge, 1979)

Noel Weeks The Christian School: An Introduction (Edinburgh: Banner of Truth)

Chapter 12 deals with maths. He contrasts rationalist and romanticist views of math education and offers some pointers for a Christian approach.


Steve Bishop 1996. Beliefs shape mathematics. Spectrum vol. 28 (2) (Summer)

Examines several philosophies of maths to show that maths is not neutral but shaped by beliefs. The contours of a Christian approach to maths are sketched.

A version in Spanish is available here. Kindly translated by (c) José Ernesto Garcia Andrade, Rector del Colegio Superior de Teologia <<Refoma Protestante>> 

Steve Bishop 1997. Bibliography of maths education and Christianity. In Entry Points for Christian Reflection within Education ed. P. MacKenzie et al. London: Care for Education.

Steve Bishop 2001-02. 'Mathematics and the myth of neutralityChristian School Education 5 (4) (2001-2002): 19-21

Steve Bishop 2012. Contributions to the God and Math website

Christian mathematicians:

Steve Bishop 2001-02. 'Mathematics and the myth of neutralityChristian School Education 5 (4) (2001-2002): 19-21

James Bradley 2004.  'Two ways of knowingJournal of the ACMS 2004 (Aug)

James Bradley 2007. Teaching mathematics from a Christian perspective. Transforming Teachers.

Edward Fackerell 2003. 'The Relationship Between Mathematics and the Christian Faith'Christian Teachers Journal, Vol 11, No. 2, May 2003. (The Christian Teachers Journal can be contacted at: PO Box 7000, Blacktown NSW 2148 Australia)

Edward Fackerell 'A Christian perspective on teaching mathematics'.

Geertsema, Jan C. 1997. A Christian View of the Foundations of Statistics PSCF 39 (September 1997):158-164

Jan Gormas 2005.  'A search for intellectual, relational and spiritual integrity: secondary mathematics from a Christian perspective' Education and Christian Belief 9(2) (2005) abstract

Anglea Hare 'Mathematics and Christianity: Integration Project'

Laura Harrington 'All I really need to know I learned .... in maths class???'

Andrew M. Hartley 2004.  The Philosophy of the Law Idea and the Role of the Prescientific in Statistical Inference Journal of the ACMS 2004 (Dec)

H. Harold Hartzler 1949.  The Meaning of Mathematics JASA 1 (January 1949):13-19.

Calvin Jongsma 2007. "Mathematics: Always Important, Never Enough: A Christian Perspective on Mathematics and Mathematics Education," Pro Rege 35(4): 21 - 38.

Willem Kuyk 1969. 'Some questions on the foundation of logic' Philosophia Reformata 34 (1969) 142-146

P. MacKenzie 1997.  Entry Points for Christian Reflection within education (London: CARE, 1997) (Now available as an e-book)

Chapter 7 is on mathematics and looks at how it is approached from a UK Christian schools perspective.

Paul Marshall 1979. 'Mathematics and politics' Philosophia Reformata 44 (1979) 113-136

Nathan Moyer 2011. Connecting Mathematics Students to Philosophy and Faith.

Andrew Palfryman 2005.  School mathematics and christian faith - are they related? ActNow Summer 2005.

Vern Poythress Creation and Mathematics; or What Does God Have to Do with Numbers? The Journal of Christian Reconstruction 1/1:128-40.

Vern Poythress Mathematics as Rhyme Journal of the American Scientific Affiliation 35/4:196-203. (See my comments here)

Vern Poythress 'Newton's Laws as Allegory' Journal of the American Scientific Affiliation 35/3:156-161.

Sharon K Robbert Christianity and mathematics Devotionals with mathematics content!

Duncan Roper Euler and the Konigsberg bridges: some lessons for the philosophy of mathematics

Roger Slack 1981-83. Mathematics: An Historical Survey (Nottingham: ACT Mathematics Group 1981-83)

A useful 30-page booklet dealing with the history of math from the Pythagoreans to the present from a Christian perspective.

M D Stafleu 1978. 'The mathematical and technical opening up of a field of science' Philosophia Reformata 43 (1978).

Danie F. M. Strauss 1970. 'Number concept and number-idea' PhilosophiaReformata35 (1970): 156-177

Danie F.M. Strauss 1971. 'Number concept and number-idea (continued)' Philosophia Reformata36 (1971): 13-42.

Danie F.M. Strauss 1983.  'Dooyeweerd and Modern Mathematics' Reformational Forum, 1983, nr.2 (pp.5-17).

Danie F.M. Strauss 1994.  'Mathematical paradigms' Journal for Christian Scholarship, 3rd & 4th Quarter 1994 (pp.113-167).

Danie F.M. Strauss 1995.  'The three foundational crises in mathematics' Journal for Christian Scholarship , 1st & 2nd Quarter 1995 (pp.12-22).

Danie F.M. Strauss 2000.  'Mathematics and the Real World' Koers Year/Vol.65(1) April 2000, pp.95-121.

Danie F.M. Strauss 2001.  Reductionism in Mathematics: Philosophical Reflections Journal for Christian Scholarship, Year 37, 1ste en 2nd Quarter, 2001, pp.1-12

Danie F.M. Strauss 2003.  Is a Christian Mathematics possible? Tydskrif vir Christelike Wetenskap/Journal for Christian Scholarship, 2003(3&4):31-49.

Danie F.M Strauss 2009: A non-reductionist Ontology for Mathematics - a historical and systematic analysis

Danie F.M. Strauss 2011  Christian Philosophy and Maths

Danie F.M. Strauss 2011 Defining mathematics

Danie F. M. Strauss 2013. World view, philosophy, and the teaching of arithmetic. Acta Academica 2013 45(1): 26-57.

Danie F.M. Strauss 2014. What is a Line? Axiomathes (2014) 24(2):181- 205, DOI 10.1007/s10516-013-9224-5.

Danie F.M. Strauss 2016: Christianity and Mathematics

Danie F.M. Strauss 2018: Contours of the History of Maths.pdf

Harro Van Brummelen 1977. 'Mathematics in the Christian High School Curriculum' Christian Educators Journal vol. 17(September/October 1977), 15-17.

Harro Van Brummelen 1979. 'What's happening in math' Christian Home and School vol. 57 (May/June 1979), 16-18. 

Arnold Veldkamp 197 'Irrational numbers and realityPro Rege vol. 4, (December 1975), 2-3. 

John Westwell 2005 'Teaching mathematics: it's time to tell new stories' Education and Christian Belief 9(2) (2005)

Zonnefeld, Valorie L., 2015. "Practical Applications of an Integrally Christian Approach to Teaching Mathematics"

Zonnefeld, Valorie L. and Zonnefeld, Ryan G., 2016.  "Faith Connections in the Math Classroom"